TTIMES WORLD: Health News Report

Monday, April 23, 2018
Washington, DC, USA


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A Study on the Prevalence of Cerebral Palsy
And Intellectual Disability Among Children

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Prevalence of cerebral palsy and intellectual disability among children identified in two U.S. National Surveys,

Maenner MJ1, Blumberg SJ2, Kogan MD3, Christensen D4, Yeargin-Allsopp M4, Schieve LA4.

PURPOSE:

Cerebral palsy (CP) and intellectual disability (ID) are developmental disabilities that result in considerable functional limitations. There are few recent and nationally representative prevalence estimates of CP and ID in the United States.

METHODS:

We used two U.S. nationally representative surveys, the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) and the 2011-2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), to determine the prevalence of CP and ID based on parent report among children aged 2-17 years.

RESULTS:

CP prevalence was 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.1-3.2) per 1000 in the NSCH and 2.9 (95% CI: 2.3-3.7) in the NHIS. ID prevalence was 12.2 (95% CI: 10.7-13.9) and 12.1 (95% CI: 10.8-13.7) in NSCH and NHIS, respectively. For both conditions, the NSCH and NHIS prevalence estimates were similar to each other for nearly all sociodemographic subgroups examined.

CONCLUSIONS:

Despite using different modes of data collection, the two surveys produced similar and plausible estimates of CP and ID and offer opportunities to better understand the needs and situations of children with these conditions.

Childhood Obesity Problem
A Complex Issue - See What You Can Do

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Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences

Childhood obesity is a complex health issue. It occurs when a child is well above the normal or healthy weight for his or her age and height. The causes of excess weight gain in young people are similar to those in adults, including factors such as a person’s behavior and genetics.

Our nation’s overall increase in obesity also is influenced by a person’s community. Where people live can affect their ability to make healthy choices.

Behavior

Behaviors that influence excess weight gain include eating high-calorie, low-nutrient foods and beverages, not getting enough physical activity, sedentary activities such as watching television or other screen devices, medication use, and sleep routines.

In contrast, consuming a healthy diet and being physically active can help children grow as well as maintain a healthy weight throughout childhood. Balancing energy or calories consumed from foods and beverages with the calories burned through activity plays a role in preventing excess weight gain. In addition, eating healthy and being physically active also has other health benefits and helps to prevent chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cancer, and heart disease.

Use these resources to eat well and be active!

A healthy diet follows the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans that emphasizes eating a variety of vegetables and fruits, whole grains, a variety of lean protein foods, and low-fat and fat-free dairy products. It also limits eating foods and beverages with added sugars, solid fats, or sodium. The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommends children aged 6 years or older do at least 60 minutes of physical activity every day.

Community Environment
It can be difficult for children and parents to make healthy food choices and get enough physical activity when they are exposed to environments that do not support healthy habits. Places such as child care centers, schools, or communities can affect diet and activity through the foods and drinks they offer and the opportunities for physical activity they provide. Other community factors that affect diet and physical activity include the affordability of healthy food options, peer and social supports, marketing and promotion, and policies that determine how a community is designed.

Consequences of Obesity

More Immediate Health Risks
•Obesity during childhood can have a harmful effect on the body in a variety of ways. Children who have obesity are more likely to have(1-7) ◦High blood pressure and high cholesterol, which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD).
◦Increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes.
◦Breathing problems, such as asthma and sleep apnea.
◦Joint problems and musculoskeletal discomfort.
◦Fatty liver disease, gallstones, and gastro-esophageal reflux (i.e., heartburn).

A family eating a healthy meal outdoors
•Childhood obesity is also related to8-10:
◦Psychological problems such as anxiety and depression.
◦Low self-esteem and lower self-reported quality of life.
◦Social problems such as bullying and stigma.


Future Health Risks
•Children who have obesity are more likely to become adults with obesity.11 Adult obesity is associated with increased risk of a number of serious health conditions including heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancer.12
•If children have obesity, their obesity and disease risk factors in adulthood are likely to be more severe.13

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